The benefits associated with CAV adoption support many societal goals — from increased safety and expanded mobility options for those unable to drive to reduced traffic congestion, energy use and emissions. However, the deployment of CAVs depends on more than just vehicle technologies, writes the CSA Group
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Since the first connected vehicles that relied on satellite communication, connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technology has evolved significantly.
Advanced sensors and onboard computer processing, the Internet of Things and 5G network, machine learning, artificial intelligence and other innovations are leading to higher levels of vehicle driving autonomy.
Across North America, more than 20,000 connected vehicles are participating in some 60 active trials. Many more are planned in the near future.
But readiness of the supporting infrastructure and other complex issues related to CAVs (including privacy and cybersecurity) remain a challenge for integration into an intelligent transportation system.
The role of CSA Group guidelines for CAV deployment
As with other emerging technologies, standardization can help the integration of CAVs into the current transportation network.
Standards encourage consistency in requirements and their harmonization to achieve interoperability of the technology.
CSA Group is a leader in standards research, development, education and advocacy. It is engaging a broad group of CAV stakeholders to explore the standardization gaps and opportunities. This work led to the development of the CSA Group CAV Standardization Roadmap and the new guidelines for physical and digital infrastructure and cybersecurity for CAVs.
Working closely with industry stakeholders
CAV technologies are rapidly progressing. Close collaboration and information sharing among key stakeholders from all levels of government, automotive and technology industries, associations and academia are critical for the efficient deployment of CAVs.
In 2019, the CSA Group formed the Connected and Automated Vehicle Advisory Council (CAVAC). It aims to provide a platform for such collaboration. More than 50 CAVAC members representing the CAV value chain meet regularly to discuss standardization needs as this technology advances.
Exploring the CAV standardization landscape
Leveraging its Research Program, CSA Group conducted an in-depth study of the existing standards applicable to CAV digital and physical infrastructure, usage, human-machine interaction, accessibility, cybersecurity, data integrity and privacy, as well as vehicles and onboard equipment. Combined with stakeholder interviews, this research helps to develop an understanding of the current standards landscape. In addition, it identifies gaps and themes that require attention and action.
Read the full research report, Connected and Automated Vehicle Technologies – Insights for Codes and Standards in Canada, here.
To address the gaps and priority themes further, CSA Group’s follow-up research focused on the digital and physical infrastructure. Its goal was to provide a framework for a code that would provide requirements and specifications for CAV infrastructure installation and operation and promote safety, compatibility and interoperability of CAV technologies across North America.
Read the full report, Physical and Digital Infrastructure for Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAV), here.
New guidelines for CAV infrastructure
Leveraging this extensive research and input from stakeholders, CSA Group expert members developed a series of guidelines addressing digital and physical infrastructure, cybersecurity, privacy and data management for CAVs.
CSA EXP150.1:23, Guidelines for connected and automated vehicles: Digital infrastructure
Transportation infrastructure consists of complex, interactive and interdependent systems. Digital components of the infrastructure allow these systems to collect and exchange real-time data. This improves safety and mobility, especially at locations prone to safety risks and traffic congestion.
CSA EXP150.2:23, Guidelines for connected and automated vehicles: Physical infrastructure
Physical infrastructure consists of elements that facilitate safe and efficient travel of vehicles of different weights and sizes. Roadway assets (such as lane markings and signs) can be detected, identified and used by vehicle sensors to support various automated driving systems. Field equipment supporting vehicle-to-infrastructure communication is a component of the physical infrastructure.
CSA EXP150.3:23, Guidelines for connected and automated vehicles: Cybersecurity, Privacy, and Data Management
Hand-in-hand with the expanding use of digital infrastructure comes the need to address data and network safety, security and privacy. Cybersecurity, data management and privacy help protect networks, devices, infrastructure and data from improper access or use while ensuring confidentiality, integrity and availability of information.
Toward the development of the CAV Code
Developed through a consensus-based process by CSA Group volunteer technical experts, these new guidelines help frame requirements for CAV demonstrations and deployment across North America in the near term and form a strong foundation for the development of a broader code for CAVs in the future.
To learn more about the guidelines, visit CSA Group’s Standards for Connected and Automated Vehicles Infrastructure.
The CSA Group excels in addressing emerging, complex issues and technologies. CSA Group is comprised of two organizations: Standards Development and Testing, Inspection, & Certification.